Thyroid Disease: Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism symptoms

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The endocrine System & glands

An endocrine system is basic network of different glands in the body. It helps secretes hormones and chemical substance at different time and interval. It also helps to regulate the functions and activity of almost all bodily functions. Especially all the physical and chemical process. Like growth, respiration, metabolism, reproduction, sensory perception, movement, sexual development and other functions.


Glands are part of the endocrine system. It releases hormones directly into the blood stream. Generally, Thyroid and Parathyroid gland are responsible for all thyroid related diseases.

Thyroid anatomy - image credit by OpenStax College 


The most common diseases of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism or under active thyroid diseases. Where the thyroid hormone production stops completely or reduced to minimal level. The primary and most important function of thyroid hormone is to control metabolism. Which in tern controls body temperature, heartburn and also the process of burning calories.

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 Hypothyroidism symptoms

  • Common symptoms of hypothyroidism are
  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Puffy face
  • Muscle weakness
  • Thinning hair
  • Cold intolerance
  • Excessive sleep
  • Loss of libido
  • Insomnia
  • Anemia
  • Depression
  • Poor mental development
  • Heavier menstrual periods

Hypothyroidism Cause

Autoimmune disorder 

It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, commonly called as Hashimoto’s diseases. In these diseases your immune system produces antibodies which attacks your own healthy cell. It causes serious health problems.

Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency is one of the major causes of hypothyroidism

Thyroid surgery / Radiation therapy 

In some surgery or operations, removal of thyroid glands are required. In this case you need to take thyroid hormone for almost entire life.


Many drugs also can interfere with the production of thyroid hormone such as lithium, amiodarone, interferon alpha etc.


Hyperthyroidism is just opposite to Hypothyroidism, where the thyroid hormones secrete excessively.

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms 

Hypothyroidism may not cause significant symptoms in young or early ages. Most of the time it is noticeable in old age, especially after 60. Also hypothyroidism can imitate other health problems and wide variety of Symptoms.

But the first and most common symptoms are identified as mention below –

  • Enlarged thyroid gland and swelling in the neck area.
  • Unintentional weight gain or weight loss – when your food intake or activity is as regular.
  • Rapid heart beat and nervousness or increasing palpitation.
  • Fatigue or muscle weakness for extended period of time.
  • Shaking in hands and fingers.
  • Other Symptoms
  • Hyperactivity
  • Increase of bowel movement and urination.
  • Loose nails
  • Redness and rashes on palm or hands
  • Frequent mood swings
  • Trouble in sleeping
  • Thinning skin
  • Hair became thinner day by day.
  • Changes in menstrual cycle in women.
  • Nausea and vomiting tendency.

Hyperthyroidism Cause

There are two different kinds of hormones, manages the functions of thyroid glands. Thyroxine( T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3).

Graves’ diseases

When the gland secrets too much T4 and T3 hormone, body produce too much antibody to protect and fight with outside viruses. This antibody causes the thyroid gland to secrete too much hormone. It is an autoimmune system. The cause of this syndrome is still unknown.

Toxic noduler 

Toxic nodules is lump in the thyroid gland, which is a kind of adenoma/adenomas. It creates lumps and produce too much T4 hormone, this also causes enlargement of the thyroid glands.


Sometimes, the thyroid gland becomes inflamed due to autoimmune or some unknown reason. It cause excess hormone stored in the glands. Often it can leak in to the blood stream.

Iodine intake 

Too much iodine intake in the form of food or medication can cause thyroid glands to produce excess hormones.

When to get serious

Most of the time when you see sudden abnormalities in your immune system, which affects your metabolism and weight gain or loss.

When you start feeling nervous for one week, without much reason.

Most importantly, if you feel pain or discomfort near your neck or adams’ apple for some time you should visit your doc.

Prevention guidelines 
Hypothyroidism Treatment  Hyperthyroidism Treatment 

Yoga and stretching 

There are several yogasana and pranayama postures that can help relax the nervous system. Some basic asana is targeted on thyroid glands and muscle. But again, it is important to understand therapeutic yoga is for prevention not medicine or magic pill. You can spend some time daily to normalize the conditions.


Selsnium, Vitamin D probiotics are good for these conditions. Please take professional advice before starting any medication.

Some holistic talk 

Thyroid is more about lifestyle diseases than the old age problem, I believe. Some people identify it as genetics as well. But If you take care of your diet and body by giving 30 mins daily. You can easily enjoy normal, healthy life. But if you are already in it and at an early age. Please be conscious (start eating healthy food, be aware of your posture and of course start your daily yoga practice ) before it gets chronic. Those who are seeing doctors and already done with their thyroid surgery. It is advisable to take some expert advice and make some basic yoga and pranayama for your life long partner.

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